1976年 第14卷 第1期: 53~58
摘要：An almost complete fossil skull of Palaeoloxodon namadicus was discovered, during the summer of 1972, at the locality(p1. II, 2.) 500m. west of the famous Nihewan village of Yangyuan district, NW Hebei province.
The skull was unearthed from the Nihewan Formation. It is embeded in the sands and gravels which are not cement yet and deep at the section.
When this specimen was discovered, there is a stone artifact associated with which being dated supposely to be of early Pleistocene age in China (V.P., Vol. XII, No. 1).
The characters of this specimen indicate that it is well referable to Elephas namadicus (Falconer&Cautly, 1846).
At present, the concepts of Palaeoloxodon namadicus about its genus and species are not brought under one system among scholars. I would like to draw some attention to “the worn molar crowns of P. namadicus which show some resemblance to those of Loxodon, especially when worn close to the base where the plates are somewhat wider in the center. But this condition is the result of retention of a primitive character, and is not indicative of phyletic relationships. When cranial anatomy is taken into .account, P. namadicus cannot be considered as specially related to Loxodonta”(Maglio, 1973:p. 33). Maglio believed that the inadequate diagnoses given for Palaeoloxodon cannot be maintained. The opinion beingcommendable very much should be acceptable in the future.
Maglio suggests an origin of Elephas (Palaeoloxodon) namadicus from African E.ekorensis or perhaps an early stage of E. recki linneage, probably during the early Pleistocene. Now then, the fact is that P. namadicus have existed in the early Pleistocene Nihewan Beds. In this way, how does it explain that P. namadicus origiantes and expands, in the world? Merely, the known Nihewan fauna were late Villafranchian aspect. The skulls of the Nihewau and the Narbada elephants exhibit likeness so much so that it is probable that both lived in the time not far apart. In fact, the so-called Nihewan Formation can not be considered as a single unit of early Pleistocene age, and rather a complex of sediments in which may range upwardy well inthe middle-late Pleistocene age. If this idea would be proved to be correct, that Maglio proposed expansion of the species of the Elephas (Palaeoloxodon) namadicus would obtain a useful positive evidence.