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广西柳城巨猿洞及其他山洞的第四纪哺乳动物

1962年第6卷 第3期: 211-218

发表日期:2010-03-24来源:放大 缩小

编辑:裴文中

摘要:By the recent studies of the Quaternary mammalian fossils collected by the regular excavations in the Liucheng Gigantopithecus Cave and obtained from many caves in the same Kwangsi Autonomic District of Chuang Minority in South China, we get affirmative evidence to prove that the "Ailuropoda-Stegodon Fauna" is not a single-aged one, as of early or middle Pleistocene, but a complex which had a duration as long as the whole Pleistocene epoch.

The most part of the elements of this South China mammalian fauna appeared in Early Pleistocene and survived up to the middle and late part of tie same period without important change in dental characters but only with increasing or decreasing in size. A best example is the Giant Panda. The early Pleistocene form of Ailuropoda (A. microta Pei) was the smallest and that of the Middle and Late Pleistocene species (A. melanoleuca fovealis Matthew and Granger) developed to a maximum dimension and had a widest geographical distribution. The giantism persisted up to the Neolithic time but the size of the recent form (A. m. melanoleuca) has been slightly declined and its habitat retracted to a very limited area in a certain part in the Province of Szechuan.

Besides the common members, such as Rhinoceros, Tapirus, Ursus and some forms of Cervids and Bovids, of the "Ailuropoda-Stegodon fauna", the Early Pleistocene one of Kwangsi consists of also some archaic forms such as, Trilophodon, Stegodon praeorientalis, but the ascertainment of an Early Pleistocene age is demonstrated by the presence of the true horse (Equus yunnanensis).

Except the increase or decrease of size of most part of the persisted members of the "Ailuropoda-Stegodon fauna", difference of the Middle Pleistocene mammals can hardly be observed from the same animals of Early Pleistocene age.

During the Late Pleistocene time, Kwangsi was also occupied by the animal members of the same "Ailuropoda-Stegodon fauna" without important dental evolution, but human beings developed into Homo Sapiens. The determination of Late Pleistocene in age is chiefly basing upon the presence of Sapiens type of man. And some elements of the fauna had become rare and retreated to a certain geographical patches, e.g. the orang-utan (Pongo), the true elephant, etc. confined to south-west corner and the giant Panda to northern part of Kwangsi. In these limited areas these Pleistocene animals became extinct only in Holocene (Neolithic or later) time.

卷期: 6卷 3期

Quaternary Mammals from the Liucheng Gigantopithecus Cave and Other Caves of Kwangsi

Pei Wen-chung

 

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