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云南禄丰晚中新世鸭类标本的再研究与系统发育分析

发表日期:2015-12-03来源:放大 缩小

  编辑:Thomas A. STIDHAM

摘要:1985年侯连海初步报告了发现于云南禄丰中新世古猿地点的部分鸟类化石,建立了一新种石灰坝潜鸭(Aythya shihuibas),并将另一件标本定为河鸭属未定种(Anas sp.)。针对这两件鸭类标本保存的特征进行系统发育分析,并结合二者目前已知的分布情况,可以确定禄丰鸟类至少存在两个不同种(不同的系统发育支系),这和之前的结论相似。石灰坝潜鸭的肱骨腹侧气窝中具有骨质支柱,异于现生潜鸭类,代表了气窝演化的较原始形态,依此认为其很可能为一潜鸭类冠群以外的绝灭支系。另一件原命名为Anas sp.的鸭类标本保存非常破碎,无法对其进行较精确的系统发育分析。它很可能为鸭科成员,或许可以称为河鸭类,尽管此属(Anas)为非单系类群。这件禄丰河鸭类标本可能与发现于蒙古中新世.上新世的另一河鸭属未定种关系较近,二者具有相似的特殊特征组合。

关键词: 云南禄丰, 晚中新世,鸟类,鸭科,潜鸭,河鸭

卷期53卷,第4

  Re-description and phylogenetic assessment of the Late Miocene ducks Aythya shihuibas and Anas sp. (Aves: Anseriformes) from Lufeng, Yunnan, China

  Thomas A. STIDHAM

Abstract    In 1985, Hou Lianhai published a short paper on some of the bird specimens from the Miocene hominoid fossil locality of Lufeng in Yunnan, and in that paper, he named one species of duck (Aythya shihuibas) and described a second specimen as a member of Anas. Assessment of the phylogenetic characters preserved in those two anatid specimens, in combination with their currently known distribution, confirms that two different species (from different phylogenetic lineages) are present in the Lufeng avifauna, as originally published. The presence of the primitive state of a highly pneumatic cavity with bony struts in the ventral pneumotricipital fossa in A. shihuibas differs from nearly all living species in Aythya and helps to establish that it is a distinct extinct species likely outside the crown group of Aythya. The more fragmentary Lufeng anatid specimen, originally called Anas sp., cannot be as accurately constrained phylogenetically. It is likely a member of Anatinae and perhaps could be called Anas, although the species of that genus are not monophyletic. The Lufeng Anas specimen may be closely related to one of the unnamed species placed in Anas from the Mio-Pliocene of Mongolia because they share an uncommon combination of characters.

Key words Lufeng, Yunnan, Late Miocene, Aves, Duck, Aythya, Anas

  

 

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