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内蒙古三盛公渐新世古鼬(食肉目,古鼬科)新材料及系统发育关系分析

发表日期:2015-12-04来源:放大 缩小

  编辑:王健,张兆群

摘要:古鼬属(Palaeogale)由H. von Meyer1846年建立,欧亚大陆以及北美的晚始新世—中新世地层中均有报道。但受化石标本以及研究程度的限制,古鼬的分类位置问题一直存在争议,曾被分别归入鼬科(Mustelidae)、古灵猫科(Viverravidae)、猫科(Felidae)、古鼬科(Palaeogalidae)和猫型亚目(Feliformia)科未定等。内蒙古三盛公地区新发现了5件古鼬标本,其中IVPP V 19325 (包括属于同一个体的一件残破头骨、一对近乎完整的下颌以及一些椎体和肋骨)是目前为止亚洲发现的保存最完好的标本。本文详细描述了这些新材料,并基于新材料,结合前人的图版描述,提取了古鼬的形态学性状特征用于系统发育关系分析。参考Wesley-Hunt and Flynn (2005)的系统发育关系分析,选用了共计42个类群的100个性状特征进行了分析。此外,对12个现生类群的6个基因(细胞核基因TR-i-I, TBGIRBP; 线粒体基因ND2, CYTB12S rRNA), 共计5893个碱基对进行的分子系统发育关系分析,帮助完善了古鼬的形态学系统发育关系分析结果。50%多数合意树的结果显示古鼬与鼬科及古灵猫科均无明显的亲缘关系,而是位于猫型亚目基干位置,代表了猫型亚目下一个原始的支系,可被归入古鼬科(Palaeogalidae)。同时,还厘定了古鼬科的鉴定特征。未来还需要更完整的性状数据,尤其是耳区的性状特征,来完善古鼬的系统发育关系分析。

关键词:内蒙古三盛公,渐新世,食肉目,扇形古鼬,系统发育关系

卷期53卷,第4

 

Phylogenetic analysis on Palaeogale (Palaeogalidae, Carnivora) based on specimens from Oligocene strata of Saint-Jacques, Nei Mongol

WANG Jian, ZHANG Zhao-Qun

Palaeogale was established by H. von Meyer in 1846. Fossils of this genus were discovered from both Eurasia and North America ranging from Late Eocene to Miocene. Lacking of well preserved specimens and complicated historical nominations hampered its phylogeny and classification. The genus has previously been assigned in Mustelidae, Viverravidae, Felidae, Palaeogalidae, and Feliformia (Family uncertain) respectively. In the past few years, we found five specimens that can be attributed to Palaeogale from the Oligocene strata of Saint-Jacques, Nei Mongol. Of them the specimen IVPP V 19325 represents a single individual, including a partial skull, a pair of nearly complete lower jaws, some vertebrae and ribs, which is by far the most complete specimen of Palaeogale discovered from Asia.

Key words Saint-Jacques, Nei Mongol; Oligocene; Carnivora, Palaeogale sectoria; phylogeny

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