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孟氏苏崩猴( 哺乳动物纲:近兔猴超科) 的齿列以及亚洲窃果猴科系统发育关系的再研究

发表日期:2016-06-07来源:放大 缩小

编辑:毕丛山,倪喜军,王元青,  津,Daniel L. GEBO     

摘要:格沙头期的窃果猴类(carpolestid)孟氏苏崩猴(Subengius mengi)属于亚洲已知最早的近兔猴形类(plesiadapiform)。苏崩猴的新标本澄清了该类群的牙齿剖解结构。孟氏苏崩猴的齿列比以前认为的要原始得多,下齿列的齿式2.1.3.3, p4低冠,具有3个主尖,但不似Elphidotarsius的相应主尖那样完全并生,P3的舌侧缘更窄,结构更简单,m1不具有高度扩展的下前尖和下后尖。苏崩猴P3的独特结构以及对Elphidotarsius sp., cf. E. florencaeP3剖解特征的重新研究表明,过去对窃果猴科P3的某些齿尖的同源性的说明是错误的。在详细的特征分析基础上,重新建立了窃果猴类及其近亲的系统发育关系。崩班期(Bumbanian)的同时猴(Chronolestes simul)被重新认定是窃果猴科最基部的成员。孟氏苏崩猴以及崩班期的另一个种旭日多脊食果猴(Carpocristes oriens)也是窃果猴类相对靠基部的成员,但这些亚洲窃果猴类之间似乎都没有特殊的相互关系。虽然北美和亚洲的窃果猴类均延续到古新世?始新世界线附近,但它们在两个大陆之间的扩散似乎仅限于古新世的较早期。 
关键词:古新世,格沙头期,近兔猴形目,生物地理学,系统发育
卷期:第54卷,第3期

 

Dentition of Subengius mengi (Mammalia: Plesiadapoidea) and a reassessment
of the phylogenetic relationships of Asian Carpolestidae

K. Christopher BEARD, NI Xi-Jun, WANG Yuan-Qing , MENG Jin , Daniel L. GEBO

Abstract   New fossils pertaining to the oldest known Asian plesiadapiform, the Gashatan carpolestid Subengius mengi, clarify aspects of the dental anatomy of this taxon. The dentition of S. mengi is substantially more primitive than previously recognized in retaining a lower dental formula of 2.1.3.3, a low-crowned p4 with three main cusps that are less fully connate than their counterparts in species of Elphidotarsius, P3 with a narrower and structurally simpler lingual margin, and in lacking widely splayed paraconid and metaconid on m1. The unique structure of P3 in S. mengi and a reassessment of P3 anatomy in Elphidotarsius sp., cf. E. florencae, suggest that certain cusp homologies on P3 in Carpolestidae have been misinterpreted in the past. Following a detailed character analysis, the phylogenetic relationships of carpolestids and their close relatives are reconstructed. The Bumbanian taxon Chronolestes simul is recovered as the most basal member of Carpolestidae. S. mengi and a second Bumbanian taxon, Carpocristes oriens, also appear to be relatively basal members of the carpolestid radiation, although none of these Asian carpolestid taxa seems to be specially related to each other. Dispersal of carpolestids between Asia and North America appears to have been restricted to earlier parts of the Paleocene, although carpolestids survived on both continents until sometime near the Paleocene–Eocene boundary. 
Key words   Paleocene, Gashatan, Plesiadapiformes, biogeography, phylogeny 

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