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基干啮型类发现跟骨管结构

发表日期:2016-06-07来源:放大 缩小

编辑:张兆群,李传夔,  健,王元青,   

摘要2002BleefeldBock发现跟骨上一个独特的剖解结构——跟骨管——仅在现生与化石兔形目种类中存在,而在啮齿类以及相关类群中缺如,并认为这个独特的剖解特征支撑了兔形目是一个单系类群。对安徽潜山古新世地层中发现的基干啮型类标本(IVPP V 7422)的观察表明其跟骨上也存在清晰的跟骨管,使得大家重新审视这一独特剖解特征。结合显微镜观察与CT扫描技术,发现兔形目种类,如Dawsonolagus, Ordolagus等存在较大的跟骨管,其进口与出口皆与骨体内部髓腔贯通;在双门齿啮型类如Mimolagus, Gomphos, 单门齿啮型类Rhombomylus上也存在清晰的跟骨管。因此,跟骨管的存在可能是啮型类的共近裔性状,也支撑了兔形类与啮齿类具有更近的亲缘关系。 

关键词:安徽潜山,古新世,兔形目,单门齿类,双门齿类,跟骨管

卷期:第54卷,第3期

 

Presence of the calcaneal canal in basal Glires

ZHANG Zhao-Qun, LI Chuan-Kui, WANG Jian, WANG Yuan-Qing, MENG Jin 

Abstract   A unique canal (calcaneal canal) running diagonally through the calcaneus was commonly considered as characteristic for lagomorphs, both extant and fossil, but absent in rodents and other pertinent lagomorph relatives. However, our investigation of a calcaneus from the Middle Paleocene of Qianshan, Anhui Province and specimens previously grouped in Mimotonidae also shows presence of canals on calcaneus bones. To further explore the unique character, we scanned calcanei of Ordolagus, Mimolagus, Gomphos, Rhombomylus, and Oryctolagus using microCT and investigated the calcanei in some other related taxa under microscope. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the calcanei based on CT data of these taxa confirmed the presence of apertures traversing the large medullary cavity. The diagonally oriented calcaneal canal is present not only in lagomorphs, but also in non-lagomorph duplicidentates, such as Mimotona, Gomophos, and simplicidentates, such as Rhombomylus, though smaller in size. Hence, the presence of calcaneal canal may be one of the synapomophic characters for Glires, not only for the order Lagomorpha. The shared calcaneus character confirms the close relationship between Simplicidentata and Duplicidentata. 

Key words   Qianshan, Anhui, Paleocene, Lagomorpha, Simplicidentata, Duplicidentata, calcaneal canal 

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