摘要：Schlosser (1924)记述了最初发现于内蒙古化德境内或附近的二登图、敖兰卓蕾、哈尔敖包及华坝的古麝(Moschus grandaevus)。1959年中苏古生物考察队在化德的另一个地点土城子采集到不少古麝化石。2013年以来编辑在土城子进行的野外发掘积累了更多的古麝化石标本。土城子标本在形态和测量数据方面和二登图等地点的古麝非常接近，可以归入同一种。根据现有资料归纳，古麝的地理分布范围自俄罗斯的西伯利亚到华北，很可能延伸到华南；其地质时代分布范围为晚中新世–上新世。食叶型古麝在土城子晚中新世地层中的出现说明当时土城子一带有森林环境。支序分析显示麝属(Moschus)化石种相互之间的系统关系非常近，可以归并为麝族(Moschini)或麝亚科(Moschinae); Micromeryx更接近麝属和鹿科，它与麝属之间的关系比以前认为的复杂，而Hispanomeryx更接近牛科。
New material of the Late Miocene Moschus (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) from Huade, Nei Mongol, North China
DONG Wei, LIU Wen-Hui, ZHANG Li-Min, BAI Wei-Peng, CAI Bao-Quan
Abstract Moschus grandaevus was firstly uncovered from the Late Miocene deposits at Ertemte, Olan Chorea, Harr Obo and Hua Ba in or around Huade County in the middle part of Nei Mongol and was described by Schlosser in 1924. The excavations by Sino-Soviet Joint Paleontological Team in 1959 and recent excavations since 2013 at Tuchengzi (Tuchetse), another locality at Huade, accumulated many specimens of the musk deer. The morphology and metric studies show that the musk deer specimens from Tuchengzi are the same as those described by Schlosser and can be included into the same species. M. grandaevus ranges from Siberia of Russia to North China, and likely to southern China, in the Late Miocene and Pliocene. The appearance of such folivorous musk deer in the Late Miocene deposits at Tuchengzi indicates that there were forests there during that period. The cladistic analyses show that the fossil species of Moschus are closely related to each other and can be grouped together as Moschini or Moschinae. Micromeryx is closer to Moschus and Cervidae, but the relationship between Micromeryx and Moschus is more complicated than previously considered; nonetheless Hispanomeryx is closer to Bovidae.
Key words Tuchengzi, Huade, Nei Mongol; Late Miocene; Moschidae, Moschus