(2019.5.13 Monday 9:30-11:30am)
地点（Location）：北楼702室（Room 702, North Building）
报告人（Guest）：Dr. Yassine Souilmi
讨论主题（Topic）：The impacts of evolutionary selection in recent human history
Ancient human DNA studies have primarily focused on the questions surrounding ancestral migrations, admixture, phylogeography, and demography. To date, however, these studies have not fully explored the role of adaptation in shaping modern human diversity. With the number of publicly available ancient human genomes surpassing 2,000 in 2019, it is now possible to utilise a range of population genetic approaches to elucidate the genetic history of multiple human phenotypes.
Using a comprehensive aDNA database, the Online Ancient Genome Repository (OAGR; www.oagr.org.au), we utilised ~1,100 ancient Eurasian genomes to explore human phenotypic evolution from the late Pleistocene to the present, a period covering the major socio-cultural transitions in human history. We performed a series of selection screens on Mendelian and polygenic traits, building a comprehensive spatiotemporal map of human adaptation over our recent history. Our research provides a unique window into the factors that have shaped modern human diversity and pathology.
Yassine Souilmi, PhD, MS is a postdoctoral researcher at the Australian Centre for Ancient DNA (ACAD). Dr Souilmi a Harvard trained bioinformatician and Fulbright alumnus before joining ACAD played a significant leadership role in coordinating bioinformatics training and networks in Africa. Currently, Dr Souilmi leads an international team of researchers to data-mine the Online Ancient Genome Repository (OAGR)—a comprehensive centralised database containing all known ancient DNA specimens, genomes, and associated metadata. In addition to his work on OAGR, Dr Souilmi is leading work in improving ancient DNA bioinformatic analyses and applying novel technological methods to address outstanding evolutionary questions.
报告人（Guest）：Dr. Ray Tobler
讨论主题（Topic）：The Aboriginal Heritage Project
We outline the Aboriginal Heritage Project: a collaboration between the Australian Centre of Ancient DNA (ACAD) and the South Australian Museum (SAM) that aims to reconstruct the genetic history of Aboriginal Australia. The project leverages the unparalleled collection of 5000+ hair samples curated by the SAM along with cultural, morphometric and genealogical data, which were collated by Joseph B. Birdsell and Norman B. Tindale during extensive anthropological expeditions across Australia between 1926 to 1963. We present our outreach activities, which involve re-consenting the hair samples through in-depth consultation with Aboriginal Australian families and communities, along with results that reveal striking phylogeographic patterns dating back to the initial colonization of Australia.
Ultimately, we aim to provide a reference map that current and future generations of Aboriginal people can use to retrace their ancestry – including the displaced Stolen Generations and their descendants – whilst illuminating this remarkable but still largely unknown chapter of human history to the rest of world.
Dr. Ray Tobler is an ARC Indigenous Fellow currently working at the Australian Centre for Ancient DNA (ACAD) at the University of Adelaide. He completed his PhD at the Institute of Population Genetics in Vienna, Austria in late 2015. For his PhD research, Dr Tobler used natural and experimental populations of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to reveal how sexually reproducing species are able to adapt to novel environments. Dr Tobler returned to Australia at the start of 2016 to work with Prof Alan Cooper on the Aboriginal Heritage Project. This landmark project aims to reconstruct largely unknown genetic history of Aboriginal Australia by utilising extensive genealogical records and ancient DNA from hair, which were collected during anthropological expeditions across the Australian continent that started nearly 100 years ago. By creating a genetic map of Australia that predates European colonial history, the project also provides Dr Tobler and his family with the opportunity to learn more about their own Aboriginal Australian heritage.